What do we learn at a Standard First Aid Course? (Recap)

Last weekend, I completed and passed my Standard First Aid Course. My course spanned over two days, approximately 8 hours on each day. I feel that the course can be shortened if the trainers did not dwell so much on their personal stories (which some were not very relevant and I suspect exaggerations…).

I will be receiving the license shortly which will allow me to provide basic first aid for two years, afterwhich I will have to attend and pass a refresher course to renew my license every two years. I strongly encourage anyone reading this post to attend one! Who knows, you may be able to save the lives of your loved ones during an emergency.


Theory

The total number of slides I received was 212. Sounds daunting but trust me it is not that difficult! I have summarised the key points that you have to know before taking the Theory Test below. The test typically consists of 30 MCQs.

Things to know and memorise:
– First Aid is a form of emergency care/treatment to anyone who is injured or suddenly ill, before the arrival of doctor/nurse/paramedic. (Non-invasive treatment only!)
Reduce contact with body fluids: PPE > Gloves > Plastic bags > Bare Hands (To wash thoroughly afterwards!)
Primary Survey: “DRSABC” (AKA Doctors ABC) [This is very important as it will be tested in both theory and practical. D for Danger, R for Response, S for Shout, A for AED, B for breathing, C for Continuous Chest Compressions]
Recovery Position [To remember that if victim is breathing and unconscious, we have to put them in the recovery position to keep airway open until the paramedics arrive.]

( I was introduced to “My Responder App” which I find the function of locating the nearest AED super useful.)

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InjuriesKey Points to Note
Head InjuryDo not shift or move victim unless in danger.
Heat DisordersHelp to move victim to a cool place, during severe cases, wrap the victim in cool wet sheet until body temperature falls to 38 degree Celsius.
Fits/Convulsion/
Seizure/Epilepsy
Do not put hard objects in the victim’s mouth, try to prevent victim from injuring himself/herself.
FaintingRiase legs to improve blood flow to brain.
Diabetic EmergenciesIf victim has low blood sugar, provide surgery drinks or sweets to victim.
Stroke“FAST” (F for Face, A for Arms, S for Speech, T for Time) helps you to determine if the person is having a stroke.
ChokingAbdominal thrust for victims whom you are certain that they are choking. Chest thrust is to be performed on obese or pregnant victims.
HyperventilationDue to hyperventilation, there will be deficiency of carbon dioxide in the body. Do not use a paper bag to breathe in exhaled air again.
BleedingDirect pressure should be applied on the wound. Tourniquet is the last resort.
FracturesAn open fracture refers to a fracture in which there is an open wound or break in the skin near the site of the broken bone. Using a splint to secure to body part helps to reduce pain.
Soft Tissue Injuries“RICE” (R for rest, I for ice, C for compression, E for elevate)
BurnsWrap casualty with a big sheet of wet material if available and lie him/her on the ground and roll him/her.
Heart AttackOccurs when one of the coronary arteries is blocked by cholestorl deposits and/or blood clots. Place casualty in a comfortable position and assist him/her with own medication (if available).
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Practical

Bandages: You will be taught how to use a triangular bandage and a roller bandage. For triangular bandage, you will be required to learn how to make a broad and narrow bandage, how to tie a reef knot and how to make an arm sling and an elevation sling.

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is no longer a must. However, one can still perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if one is comfortable with it. Elbows should be locked, only heels of palm should be touching victim to direct force towards lower part of sternum.

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Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
PurposeTo be performed with CPR to increase the chances of survival during a sudden cardiac arrest.
FunctionIt detects and analyses the heart rhythm to prompt the operator whether defibrillation is required. When a shockable rhythm (Ventricular Fibrillation) is detected, shock will be advised.
RecommendationThe usual AED is recommended for use on children above the age of 8 and the weight requirement is at least 25 kg.
AED DangersExclude AED dangers, namely metal, water and gas, before setting up AED.
Chest PreparationCut/remove clothing > Move necklaces away from the path between the pads > Shave hair at pads areas if necessary > Dry wet chest > Remove medication patches > Place pads four fingers away from Pacemaker (if applicable).
Placement of PadsThe electrode pads are to be placed one to the right below the collar bone and another below the left nipple.
Arrival of ParamedicsTo report the estimated duration of CPR performed and the number of shock given to the victim. To ask paramedics for the hospital which the victim will be sent to, and return AED to owner.

Save lives, be a first aider 🙂

Stay Safe,
PinkOlifant

Recycling in Singapore

Where to Recycle in Singapore?

There are more than 8000 recycling bins in residential estates all over Singapore[1].

Below are the various types of Recycling Bins that you may see:

Figure 1 Recycling Bins for landed houses & HDB estates
 Figure 1 Recycling Bins for landed houses & HDB estates
Figure 2 Recycling Bins at Singapore Changi Airport
 Figure 2 Recycling Bins at Singapore Changi Airport
Figure 3 Recycling Bins at Shopping Malls
 Figure 3 Recycling Bins at Shopping Malls

You may finding the nearest Recycling Bin via this website:
http://www.onemap.sg

OneMap
Figure 4 Screenshot of SLA OneMap.sg
Clicking Steps:
  Themes>Environment>Recycling Bins

There are other services which you may be interested in exploring on this website, e.g. 2nd Hand Goods Collection Points, Cash for Trash and Green Mark Building.

Smart Bins at Hong Kah Community Club

Figure 5 Smart Bins at Hong Kah CC
 Figure 5 Smart Bins at Hong Kah Community Club

The newly introduced and attractive Smart Bins were placed at the Hong Kah Community Club in December 2015 to promote the habit of recycling[2].

Hopefully, these Smart Bins can be widely introduced across the island to further encourage Singaporeans to recycle.

– – –

What to Recycle in Singapore?

There are 5 main categories that recyclable items are usually classified under, (1) Paper, (2) Plastics, (3) Metal, (4) Glass and (5) Others.

You may press Ctrl+F to find if certain items are recyclable.

(1) Paper (纸)

Most papers are recyclable. Below are some examples (list is non-exhaustive) which you can place into the recycling bins in Singapore [3].

  • Red Packets (Ang Bao, Hong Bao, 红包)
  • Envelopes (信封)
  • Cardboard tubes for paper towels (Toilet paper tube, 纸筒)
  • Brochures (Flyers, pamphlets, 宣传纸, 宣传册)
    [Both glossy and non-glossy. 无论是否用光纸印的。]
  • Shredded papers (碎纸)
  • Any box (Cereal box, biscuit box, 纸皮箱, 纸盒)
    [Flatten if possible. 尽可折叠。]
  • Drink pack/carton (饮料包装)
    [Empty it, rinse and flatten if possible. 清空、并尽可清洗与折平。]
  • Yellow Pages
  • Stamps (邮票)
  • Namecards (名片)
  • Newspapers (报纸)
  • Magazines (Newsletters, 杂志)
  • Books (书)
  • Corrugated cardboard (瓦楞纸板)

(2) Plastics (塑料)

Usually, we would think that all plastics are recyclable but Styrofoam is a big NO.
Many would take a look at the number being surrounded by 3 arrows, which form a triangle, and try to determine whether that particular piece of plastic can be recycled – Resin Identification Code (RIC).

We need to understand that the RIC DOES NOT TELL US THE RECYCLABILITY OF THE PLASTIC, it only communicates the unique properties of the plastic [4].

1. PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) – Used for water bottles, soft drink and cooking oil bottles, and meal trays.

2. HDPE (High density polyethylene) – Used for milk and detergent bottles.

3. PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) – Used for plastic pipes, food trays, shrink wrap, and bottles.

4. LDPE (Low density polyethylene) – Used for plastic bags and bin liners.

5. PP (Polypropylene) – Used for bottle caps, margarine tubs, and meal trays.

6. PS (Polystyrene) – Used for food containers, egg cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, and protective packaging for electronic goods.

7. OTHER – Includes any other plastic that does not fall into the above categories.

All type 1 and 2 can be recycled. For plastics with RIC above 2, you might want to check against the list below provided by ZeroWasteSG:

  • Plastic drink bottle / container
  • Bread wrapper & tag
  • Plastic bag / packaging
  • Plastic packaging for biscuit / beverage packets
  • Facial foam plastic tube
  • CD & casing
  • Plastic cutlery
  • Yakult / Vitagen / yogurt bottle
  • Plastic cup / container
  • Straw
  • Cleaner / shampoo bottle
  • Cassette /video tape

(3) Metal (金属)

There are two types of metal, ferrous metal which are magnetic (e.g. iron & steel) and non-ferrous metal which are non-magnetic (e.g. stainless steel, aluminium, copper & bronze.

Ferrous metal are usually recycled in local steel mill while non-ferrous metal are transported overseas for recycling.

The common types of metal scrap in Singapore are [5]:

  • Steel (drink cans, aerosol cans, food containers, bars, beams, wires, pipes, chains, electrical goods, cars, etc)
  • Stainless steel (clippings, sheets, turnings, etc)
  • Aluminium (drink cans, clippings and turnings, windows and door frames, aluminium casting and sheet, etc)
  • Copper (copper wires, strips, etc)

(4) Glass (玻璃)

Recycled glass are usually sorted into clear, brown and green, and exported overseas as there is no glass recycling plant in Singapore [6].

Examples of glass that can be recycled:

  • Beer / wine bottle
  • Glass container
  • Glass cups
  • Wine glasses

(5) Others (其它)

YOU CAN RECYCLE YOUR CLOTHES TOO!

– – –

[1] ZeroWasteSG (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2009/02/13/where-can-i-find-recycling-bins/)

[2] The Straits Times: Hong Kah North rolls out smart bins in green campaign (http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/hong-kah-north-rolls-out-smart-bins-in-green-campaign)

[3] ZeroWasteSG: Can Recycle? (http://www.zerowastesg.com/can-recycle/)

[4] Earth911: Frequent Plastic Jug & Bottle Recycling Questions (http://www.earth911.com/recycling-guide/how-to-recycle-plastic-jugs-bottles/)

[5] ZeroWasteSG: Metal Recycling (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2008/12/08/metal-recycling/)

[6] ZeroWasteSG: Glass Recycling (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2008/12/08/glass-recycling/)

Recycling in Singapore.

Where to Recycle in Singapore?

There are more than 8000 recycling bins in residential estates all over Singapore[1].

Below are the various types of Recycling Bins that you may see:

Figure 1 Recycling Bins for landed houses & HDB estates
 Figure 1 Recycling Bins for landed houses & HDB estates
Figure 2 Recycling Bins at Singapore Changi Airport
 Figure 2 Recycling Bins at Singapore Changi Airport
Figure 3 Recycling Bins at Shopping Malls
 Figure 3 Recycling Bins at Shopping Malls

You may finding the nearest Recycling Bin via this website:
http://www.onemap.sg

OneMap
Figure 4 Screenshot of SLA OneMap.sg
Clicking Steps:
  Themes>Environment>Recycling Bins

There are other services which you may be interested in exploring on this website, e.g. 2nd Hand Goods Collection Points, Cash for Trash and Green Mark Building.

Smart Bins at Hong Kah Community Club

Figure 5 Smart Bins at Hong Kah CC
 Figure 5 Smart Bins at Hong Kah Community Club

The newly introduced and attractive Smart Bins were placed at the Hong Kah Community Club in December 2015 to promote the habit of recycling[2].

Hopefully, these Smart Bins can be widely introduced across the island to further encourage Singaporeans to recycle.

– – –

What to Recycle in Singapore?

There are 5 main categories that recyclable items are usually classified under, (1) Paper, (2) Plastics, (3) Metal, (4) Glass and (5) Others.

You may press Ctrl+F to find if certain items are recyclable.

(1) Paper (纸)

Most papers are recyclable. Below are some examples (list is non-exhaustive) which you can place into the recycling bins in Singapore [3].

  • Red Packets (Ang Bao, Hong Bao, 红包)
  • Envelopes (信封)
  • Cardboard tubes for paper towels (Toilet paper tube, 纸筒)
  • Brochures (Flyers, pamphlets, 宣传纸, 宣传册)
    [Both glossy and non-glossy. 无论是否用光纸印的。]
  • Shredded papers (碎纸)
  • Any box (Cereal box, biscuit box, 纸皮箱, 纸盒)
    [Flatten if possible. 尽可折叠。]
  • Drink pack/carton (饮料包装)
    [Empty it, rinse and flatten if possible. 清空、并尽可清洗与折平。]
  • Yellow Pages
  • Stamps (邮票)
  • Namecards (名片)
  • Newspapers (报纸)
  • Magazines (Newsletters, 杂志)
  • Books (书)
  • Corrugated cardboard (瓦楞纸板)

(2) Plastics (塑料)

Usually, we would think that all plastics are recyclable but Styrofoam is a big NO.
Many would take a look at the number being surrounded by 3 arrows, which form a triangle, and try to determine whether that particular piece of plastic can be recycled – Resin Identification Code (RIC).

We need to understand that the RIC DOES NOT TELL US THE RECYCLABILITY OF THE PLASTIC, it only communicates the unique properties of the plastic [4].

1. PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) – Used for water bottles, soft drink and cooking oil bottles, and meal trays.

2. HDPE (High density polyethylene) – Used for milk and detergent bottles.

3. PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) – Used for plastic pipes, food trays, shrink wrap, and bottles.

4. LDPE (Low density polyethylene) – Used for plastic bags and bin liners.

5. PP (Polypropylene) – Used for bottle caps, margarine tubs, and meal trays.

6. PS (Polystyrene) – Used for food containers, egg cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, and protective packaging for electronic goods.

7. OTHER – Includes any other plastic that does not fall into the above categories.

All type 1 and 2 can be recycled. For plastics with RIC above 2, you might want to check against the list below provided by ZeroWasteSG:

  • Plastic drink bottle / container
  • Bread wrapper & tag
  • Plastic bag / packaging
  • Plastic packaging for biscuit / beverage packets
  • Facial foam plastic tube
  • CD & casing
  • Plastic cutlery
  • Yakult / Vitagen / yogurt bottle
  • Plastic cup / container
  • Straw
  • Cleaner / shampoo bottle
  • Cassette /video tape

(3) Metal (金属)

There are two types of metal, ferrous metal which are magnetic (e.g. iron & steel) and non-ferrous metal which are non-magnetic (e.g. stainless steel, aluminium, copper & bronze.

Ferrous metal are usually recycled in local steel mill while non-ferrous metal are transported overseas for recycling.

The common types of metal scrap in Singapore are [5]:

  • Steel (drink cans, aerosol cans, food containers, bars, beams, wires, pipes, chains, electrical goods, cars, etc)
  • Stainless steel (clippings, sheets, turnings, etc)
  • Aluminium (drink cans, clippings and turnings, windows and door frames, aluminium casting and sheet, etc)
  • Copper (copper wires, strips, etc)

(4) Glass (玻璃)

Recycled glass are usually sorted into clear, brown and green, and exported overseas as there is no glass recycling plant in Singapore [6].

Examples of glass that can be recycled:

  • Beer / wine bottle
  • Glass container
  • Glass cups
  • Wine glasses

(5) Others (其它)

YOU CAN RECYCLE YOUR CLOTHES TOO!

– – –

[1] ZeroWasteSG (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2009/02/13/where-can-i-find-recycling-bins/)

[2] The Straits Times: Hong Kah North rolls out smart bins in green campaign (http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/hong-kah-north-rolls-out-smart-bins-in-green-campaign)

[3] ZeroWasteSG: Can Recycle? (http://www.zerowastesg.com/can-recycle/)

[4] Earth911: Frequent Plastic Jug & Bottle Recycling Questions (http://www.earth911.com/recycling-guide/how-to-recycle-plastic-jugs-bottles/)

[5] ZeroWasteSG: Metal Recycling (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2008/12/08/metal-recycling/)

[6] ZeroWasteSG: Glass Recycling (http://www.zerowastesg.com/2008/12/08/glass-recycling/)