What do we learn at a Standard First Aid Course? (Recap)

Last weekend, I completed and passed my Standard First Aid Course. My course spanned over two days, approximately 8 hours on each day. I feel that the course can be shortened if the trainers did not dwell so much on their personal stories (which some were not very relevant and I suspect exaggerations…).

I will be receiving the license shortly which will allow me to provide basic first aid for two years, afterwhich I will have to attend and pass a refresher course to renew my license every two years. I strongly encourage anyone reading this post to attend one! Who knows, you may be able to save the lives of your loved ones during an emergency.


The total number of slides I received was 212. Sounds daunting but trust me it is not that difficult! I have summarised the key points that you have to know before taking the Theory Test below. The test typically consists of 30 MCQs.

Things to know and memorise:
– First Aid is a form of emergency care/treatment to anyone who is injured or suddenly ill, before the arrival of doctor/nurse/paramedic. (Non-invasive treatment only!)
Reduce contact with body fluids: PPE > Gloves > Plastic bags > Bare Hands (To wash thoroughly afterwards!)
Primary Survey: “DRSABC” (AKA Doctors ABC) [This is very important as it will be tested in both theory and practical. D for Danger, R for Response, S for Shout, A for AED, B for breathing, C for Continuous Chest Compressions]
Recovery Position [To remember that if victim is breathing and unconscious, we have to put them in the recovery position to keep airway open until the paramedics arrive.]

( I was introduced to “My Responder App” which I find the function of locating the nearest AED super useful.)

InjuriesKey Points to Note
Head InjuryDo not shift or move victim unless in danger.
Heat DisordersHelp to move victim to a cool place, during severe cases, wrap the victim in cool wet sheet until body temperature falls to 38 degree Celsius.
Do not put hard objects in the victim’s mouth, try to prevent victim from injuring himself/herself.
FaintingRiase legs to improve blood flow to brain.
Diabetic EmergenciesIf victim has low blood sugar, provide surgery drinks or sweets to victim.
Stroke“FAST” (F for Face, A for Arms, S for Speech, T for Time) helps you to determine if the person is having a stroke.
ChokingAbdominal thrust for victims whom you are certain that they are choking. Chest thrust is to be performed on obese or pregnant victims.
HyperventilationDue to hyperventilation, there will be deficiency of carbon dioxide in the body. Do not use a paper bag to breathe in exhaled air again.
BleedingDirect pressure should be applied on the wound. Tourniquet is the last resort.
FracturesAn open fracture refers to a fracture in which there is an open wound or break in the skin near the site of the broken bone. Using a splint to secure to body part helps to reduce pain.
Soft Tissue Injuries“RICE” (R for rest, I for ice, C for compression, E for elevate)
BurnsWrap casualty with a big sheet of wet material if available and lie him/her on the ground and roll him/her.
Heart AttackOccurs when one of the coronary arteries is blocked by cholestorl deposits and/or blood clots. Place casualty in a comfortable position and assist him/her with own medication (if available).


Bandages: You will be taught how to use a triangular bandage and a roller bandage. For triangular bandage, you will be required to learn how to make a broad and narrow bandage, how to tie a reef knot and how to make an arm sling and an elevation sling.

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is no longer a must. However, one can still perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if one is comfortable with it. Elbows should be locked, only heels of palm should be touching victim to direct force towards lower part of sternum.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
PurposeTo be performed with CPR to increase the chances of survival during a sudden cardiac arrest.
FunctionIt detects and analyses the heart rhythm to prompt the operator whether defibrillation is required. When a shockable rhythm (Ventricular Fibrillation) is detected, shock will be advised.
RecommendationThe usual AED is recommended for use on children above the age of 8 and the weight requirement is at least 25 kg.
AED DangersExclude AED dangers, namely metal, water and gas, before setting up AED.
Chest PreparationCut/remove clothing > Move necklaces away from the path between the pads > Shave hair at pads areas if necessary > Dry wet chest > Remove medication patches > Place pads four fingers away from Pacemaker (if applicable).
Placement of PadsThe electrode pads are to be placed one to the right below the collar bone and another below the left nipple.
Arrival of ParamedicsTo report the estimated duration of CPR performed and the number of shock given to the victim. To ask paramedics for the hospital which the victim will be sent to, and return AED to owner.

Save lives, be a first aider 🙂

Stay Safe,

Citizenship Ceremony

Finally, I have received the letter (hard copy) to attend my Citizenship Ceremony. FYI, I renounced my previous citizenship in Oct 2019, everything was pushed back due to COVID-19.

For those who wish to have a peek at the letter, here it is:


Do note the stringent dress code required and remember to bring (a) the letter and (b) your identity card / identity card collection slip!

Unfortunately for those of us who are attending the ceremony in the midst of COVID-19, we will not be provided with any food or drinks, heard from my parents who attended years back that the food was not bad :/

In any case, stay safe everyone, and hope that everything is well for you 🙂


Collection of Form K & Birth Certificate

I hope that this post will smoothen your journey of collecting Form K and your Birth Certificate.
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1. You must either receive a hard copy letter stating that your Form K (final renunciation letter) and Birth Certificate are ready for collection or you need to request an email confirmation that your documents are ready for collection. Usually the documents are ready for collection approximately 8 months after renunciation, but there might be unforeseen circumstances leading to your documents not being ready so you would not want to risk. (If you ask me if a phone call confirmation is sufficient, I would say no. However, that’s just my opinion.)


2. You do not need to book an appointment for the collection. Head down Consular Section of MHC between 2.30pm to 4pm, Monday to Friday. Would suggest you start queueing at around 1.45pm as there were already ~30 people in front of me when I arrived at 2pm sharp. I queued under the sun for about half an hour. (Photos below may also encourage you to bring along an umbrella and be an early bird.)

3. Bring along the following documents (Original and two photocopies each in A4 size paper):

i) Singapore IC or 11B Card (photocopy front and back of the document)
ii) Singapore Passport (bio-data page only)
iii) Singapore Citizenship Certificate* (photocopy front & back of the document)
iv) Deed poll / Baptism (if name has been changed / if applicable)

Also, you must bring along the letter stating documents are ready for collection. If you do not have the letter, get ready to show your email confirmation to the officer.

*If you have not received the Singapore Citizenship Certificate, please email ICA (ICA_Citizenship_Unit@ica.gov.sg) to request for a soft copy of the certified true copy. Two photocopies of this is needed as well.


4. At the guard house, you will have to scan QR codes for SafeEntry and Health Declaration (https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSd_tUssXY3b4EC236Cl4MBtvPd4p0J98Ay-RwVxDZLD4BXoeg/viewform). (Just in case you need help for English, you can read through the questions beforehand.) And as usual, use one of your cards with your NRIC/Name to exchange for a pass to enter.

5. Go to Consular Section. You do not have to take a ticket at the ticketing machine. Just queue at Counter 1 and the officer will collect the necessary documents from you. Next, you just have to sit down and wait.

6. Waited for about 10 minutes for my name to be called. Collected Form K and my Birth Certificate after signing on a document and headed out to get back my card at the guard house.

7. Went home to scan the front and back of Form K and emailed the soft copy to ICA (ICA_Citizenship_Unit@ica.gov.sg).

DONE! I do not think I have to return to MHC for the rest of my life!

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This is a follow-up to my previous posts on renunciation of Malaysian Citizenship.

(1) Renunciation of Malaysian Citizenship: https://pinkolifant.com/2019/10/10/oct-2019-renunciation-of-malaysian-citizenship/

(2) Registration of Singapore Citizenship:

(3) Collection of NRIC & Citizenship Certificate (certified true copy):

Stay safe,
PinkOlifant (Updated as of 2020)


Updates [Renunciation of Malaysian Citizenship]

Thank you everyone who has posted questions related to problems they face while renouncing Malaysian Citizenship, as well as getting their Singapore IC and certificate, during this COVID-19 period. And many thanks to all readers who actively tried to help one another out, your generosity in sharing your knowledge and experience, I believe, will be greatly appreciated by all whom you have lent a helping hand.

After reading this post, I hope that you have a clearer picture of:
(1) How to collect Singapore NRIC
(2) How to obtain certified true copy of Singapore Citizenship Certificate
(3) How to collect Form K (final renunciation letter) & Birth Certificate

(1) Collection of Singapore Identity Card (NRIC)

Thank you one of the readers who updated me that she has emailed ICA to check on the collection of her NRIC. I followed her footsteps and emailed ICA (ICA_Citizenship_Unit@ica.gov.sg).

I received a reply a few days later saying that I have been granted permission* to enter ICA Building on a certain date to collect my NRIC while collection of Singapore Citizenship Certificate will be advised on a later date.

*Some readers received their NRIC via snail mail even before the general election.

The entire collection process took about 30 minutes. Asked about the Singapore Citizenship Certificate and they told me that it can only be collected during the ceremony which we will be informed on a later date.

(2) Certified true copy of Singapore Citizenship Certificate

For those who need a certified true copy of Singapore Citizenship Certificate for the collection of Form K (final renunciation letter) at MHC, you just have to write to ICA (ICA_Citizenship_Unit@ica.gov.sg) and request the soft copy of it via email. MHC does not require the original citizenship certificate.

(3) Collection of Form K (final renunciation letter) & Birth Certificate

I have received a letter stating that my application for renunciation of Malaysian Citizenship has been approved. Also, I have to personally go down to the Consular Section of MHC between 2.30pm to 4pm, Monday to Friday, to collect both Form ‘K’ and my birth certificate.

I have to bring along the following documents (Original and two photocopies each in A4 size paper):

i) Singapore IC or 11B Card (photocopy front and back of the document)
ii) Singapore Passport (bio-data page only)
iii) Singapore Citizenship Certificate (photocopy front & back of the document)
iv) Deed poll / Baptism (if name has been changed / if applicable)

Collection has to be done within three months from the date of the letter (booking of appointment is NOT needed).

For more details on the collection of Form K and Birth Certificate, please proceed to this post (https://pinkolifant.com/2020/09/24/collect-formk-bc/).

Stay safe,

Registration of Singapore Citizenship at ICA

Alright, after renunciation of my previous citizenship, and collecting the renunciation letter from Malaysia High Commission, I headed to Singapore ICA to register for Singapore Citizenship a few days later.

  1. Take new passport size photographs beforehand because they won’t accept the photographs you’ve submitted during application process.
    • Reason being, photos must be taken within the past three months.
    • Best to take it at a shop where they will ensure the photograph will be accepted by ICA.
  2. Scan your IC/Approval Letter at the entrance kiosk for a queue ticket.
  3. Wait for your turn near Room 19-25.
  4. Submit documents and photographs.
    • Renunciation Letter (all A4 papers which you received from Malaysia High Comission with two photocopies of them.)
    • Approval Letter from ICA
  5. Make payment of SGD80 via NETS.
  6. Wait for your queue number to be called again for oath taking.
  7. Once you are done with oath taking, you have basically completed the registration process.
  8. However, you are reminded to scan the Renunciation Approval Letter/Email (Borang K), which will be mailed to you from Malaysia, to ICA email. This step helps Singapore to ensure that your renunciation of previous citizenship is successful.
  9. You will then be permitted to apply for Singaporean passport one day later after oath-taking.
  10. Wait for letter/email to attend Citizenship Ceremony to collect your Singapore NRIC.

Done, you are ready to sing the Singapore national anthem now.
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Related posts:

Guide for “Renunciation of Malaysian Citizenship“:

Guide for “Collection of Singapore NRIC & Certified True Copy of Singapore Citizenship Certificate”:

Guide for “Collection of Form K (final renunciation letter) and Birth Certificate”:

Stay safe,